Towards a European typology of tools for urban design governance
FORMAL QUALITY DELIVERY TOOLS
encompass a wide range of tools that in different ways formally set out operational design parameters to direct the design of development. Some are generic (relating to large areas e.g. whole municipalities) and some site-specific (relating to particular projects). Some are highly prescriptive (e.g. design standards, design coding, or parameter plans) and others performance based and therefore subject to a good degree of interpretation (e.g. design policy or flexible design frameworks).
can be more or less interventionalist depending on whether they involve the state directly inputting public resources to encourage better outcomes (e.g. through subsidy or direct investment in infrastructure), or whether they are indirect and focused on rewarding defined ‘good behaviour’ with enhanced development rights (e.g. bonuses or forms of process management). Some forms of incentive focus on encouraging specific outcomes, others are process oriented, aiming to steer design-led development processes.Because they involve finance – either the giving of finance by the state or its receipt and re-investment in the public realm – typically these tools are regulated and therefore lie within the formal side of governance toolbox.
are based alternatively on fixed legal frameworks with unquestioning administrative decision making or the discretionary interpretation of policy. They encompass both development and construction related regulation and pre- and post-development decision-making (including related enforcement). They can be differentiated by to whom the benefit of the decision primarily accrues; whether a contribution from the developer to the state (the public gets something e.g. developer contributions or infrastructure adoption), or an authorization given from the state to the applicant (the applicant gets something e.g. development consents or warranting).