Towards a European typology of tools for urban design governance
INFORMAL QUALITY DELIVERY TOOLS
allow judgments to be made about the quality of design in a systematic and structured manner, usually by parties (e.g. other professionals or community groups) external to, and therefore independent from, the particular design process being evaluated.
Formative evaluation tools such as indicators or informal design review process which evaluate projects during the design development phase
Assumptive evaluation tools such as certification schemes or competitions which allow design proposals to be evaluated prior to their development
are more directive within the design process itself as they involve directly assisting or enabling design / development teams with particular projects, or with the commissioning of projects or the preparation of design guidance and other tools. They potentially encompass a range of financial means that can be used to encourage better design outcomes, providing financial support to key initiatives / delivery organisations or the raising / steering / transferring of funding for better design.
Indirect support tools, notably financial support to key delivery organisations (e.g. arms-length agencies or centres with a design remit) tied to the delivery of defined quality / quality culture objectives
Direct support tools include the provision of hands-on professional enabling, negotiation or advice
engage directly in the design process through mechanisms that investigate, test out and involve the community in particular design approaches. They are hands on but exploratory in nature, either utilising temporary interventions or inputting into larger project or place-shaping processes.
Proactive engagement tools such as design led community participation
Professional investigation tools such as research by design and testing and on-site experimentation